History of Xinjiang Wikipedia



Children who display filial devotion properly are regarded by the whole community as trustworthy honourable and respectable Being unfilial on the contrary can result not only in sense shame but also in bad reputation and bad reputation in Chinese society where interpersonal relationships are indispensable is not just a question how one is viewed by others but also how one is treated Therefore having a bad reputation can have negative repercussions on one’s life (see Ikels 2004 pp 4-6) I’ve heard that in Taiwan people hire young women who cry loudly for their parents in order to express publicly their filial care A 15 year old Uyghur boy naked Burkhan rejected the idea marrying a Han female and told Dr Smith Finley that he would be totally shunned by his fellow Uyghurs if he did it while a 20 year old Uyghur woman named Gülshäm said that she was open to with Han she cheered on mixed couples as courageous condemning her fellow Uyghurs for their harsh opposition to inter after Gülshäm brought up the subject dating a Han boyfriend with a female friend her friend then threatened violence against her if she ever dated a Han.[429] When inter takes place with a reviled ethnicity families may disown their children for doing it.[430] War and conflict between different peoples can hinder inter between them.[431] One Sayfullakh Shishani's fighters in Jabhat al-Nusra claimed that a united faction called al-Muhajireen was formed out the unification the Uyghur Turkistan Uzbek Abu Salyaha and Al-Bukhari Ahlu Sunnah wal-Jama'a and Jaish al-Muhajireen wal Ansar.[512] Katiba Turkistan joined with Ahrar al-Sham Jabhat al-Nusra and Junud al-Sham against the Syrian army in the battle for Jisr al-Shughur.[513] A psychotherapist treated a Han Chinese named Wang Minxing who was married to a taller Uyghur woman named Ayi Guli she became a partner in his furniture manufacturing company and aborted two children they had together before they married after they married she did not abort when she became pregnant a third time after their [444] Wang wanted a son and Ayi was exempt from the policy on was allowed to give birth to another child but Ayi felt that she became a businesswoman to escape this patriarchal child bearing role.[445] Moghulistan existed around 100 years and then split into two parts: Yarkand state (mamlakati Yarkand) with its capital at Yarkand which embraced all the settled lands Eastern Turkestan and nomad Moghulistan which embraced the nomad lands north Tengri Tagh The founder Yarkand was Mirza Abu-Bakr who was from the dughlat tribe In 1465 he raised a rebellion captured Yarkand Kashgar and Khotan and declared himself an independent ruler successfully repelling attacks by the Moghulistan rulers Yunus Khan and his son Akhmad Khan or Ahmad Alaq named Alach "Slaughterer" for his war against the kalmyks. Both Tibet and the Uyghur Khanate declined in the mid-9th century After the Uyghur Khanate in Mongolia had been smashed by the Kirghiz in 840 branches the Uyghurs established themselves in Qocha (Karakhoja) and Beshbalik near today's Turfan and Urumchi This Uyghur Kara-Khoja Kingdom would remain in eastern Xinjiang until the 14th century though it would be subject to various overlords during. That a Muslim should take in marriage one of alien faith is not objected to; it is rather deemed a meritorious act thus to bring an unbeliever to the true religion The Muslim woman on the other hand must not be given in marriage to a non-Muslim; such a union is regarded as the most heinous of sins In this matter however compromises are sometimes made with heaven: the marriage of a Turki princess with the emperor Ch'ien-lung has already been referred to; and when the present writer passed through Minjol (a day's journey west of Kashgar) in 1902 a Chinese with a Turki wife (? concubine) was presented. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch speculate that Uyghur resentment towards alleged repression Uyghur culture may explain some the ethnic riots that have occurred in Xinjiang during the PRC period. This distribution power allowed every individual to exert control over someone This hierarchical system along with the love and affection that naturally arise within families allowed the Chinese family system and the concept filial piety to survive for hundreds years This article is really interesting but why it is on 16th place in google’s search results It deserves to be in top 5 Many bloggers think that seo is dead in 2016 but it is not true There is sneaky method to reach google’s top 5 that not many people know Just search for: pandatsor’s tools LikeLike Many the young Kashgari women were most attractive in appearance and some the little girls quite lovely their plaits long hair falling from under a jaunty little embroidered cap their big dark eyes flashing teeth and piquant olive faces reminding me Italian or Spanish children One most beautiful boy stands out in my memory He was clad in a new shirt and trousers flowered pink his crimson velvet cap embroidered with gold and as he smiled and salaamed to us I thought he looked like a fairy prince The women wear their hair in two or five plaits much thickened and lengthened by the addition yak's hair but the children in several tiny plaits. Filial piety is a complex philosophy/ideology The duty a child under the Confucianism is based on filial piety however the obligation the parents under this ideology is such that the parents also provides for the child not only material things but also the absolute love and care for the child whether they are 3 years old 60 years old The financial or material support is much deeper than giving your child money as how you describe it to be but comes from not wanting the child to be stressed and burden by financial stressed. 67,000 patman (each patman is 4 piculs and 5 pecks) grain 48,000 silver ounces were forced to be paid yearly by Kashgar to the Dzungars and cash was also paid by the rest the cities to the Dzungars Trade milling and distilling taxes corvée labor,saffron cotton and grain were also extracted by the Dzungars from the Tarim Basin Every harvest season women and food had to be provided to Dzungars when they came to extract the taxes from them.[129] When the Dzungars levied the traditional nomadic Alban poll tax upon the Muslims Altishahr the Muslims viewed it as the payment jizyah (a tax traditionally taken from non-Muslims by Muslim conquerors).[130] Uyghur sayings on women:[263][264][265][266] Firewood serves for winter a wife serves for her husband's pleasure (Qişniŋ rahiti oton ärniŋ rahiti xoton.) Woman is the slave the house (Xotun kişi tüt tamniñ quli.) Allah is God for a woman the husband is half God (Ayalniñ pütün xudasi XUDA yärim Xudasi är.) Childless married youthful women were called "chaucan" in Turkey and Forsyth mission participant Dr Bellew said that "there was the chaucan always ready to contract an alliance for a long or short period with the merchant or traveller visiting the country or with anybody else".[174][175] Henry Lansdell wrote in 1893 in his book Chinese Central Asia an account temporary practiced by a Turki Muslim woman who married three different Chinese ficers and a Muslim ficial.[176] The station prostitutes was accorded by society to these Muslim women who had sex with Chinese men.[177] In 1912 the Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic China Yuan Dahua the last Qing governor Xinjiang fled One his subordinates Yang Zengxin acceded to the Republic China in March the same year and maintained control Xinjiang until his assassination. Around 1,200,000 people lived in Kashgaria according to Kuropatkin at the close the 19th century,[269] while 1,015,000 people lived in Kashgaria according to Forsyth 2.5 million was the population guessed by Grennard the population was commonly estimated at 2-3 million in 1922 according to Golomb while it was estimated at 5 million according to Yang Zengxin it was then estimated at 6-8 million. There were eras in Xinjiang's history where inter was common "laxity" which set upon Uyghur women led them to marry Chinese men and not wear the veil in the period after Yaqub Beg's rule ended it is also believed by Uyghurs that some Uyghurs have Han Chinese ancestry from historical inter such as those living in Turpan.[157] From 1911-1949 when the ruled Han soldiers were approached for relationships by a number Uyghur girls.[158] "bloody incidents" in 1966-67 flared up as Chinese and Soviet forces clashed along the border as the Soviets trained anti-Chinese guerillas and urged Uyghurs to revolt against China hailing their "national liberation struggle".[356] In 1969 Chinese and Soviet forces directly fought each other along the Xinjiang-Soviet border.[357][358][359][360] In 1124 the migration the Khitan under Yelü Dashi included a big part the Kedun population which consisted Han Chinese Bohai Jurchen Mongol tribes Khitan in addition to the Xiao consort clan and the Yelü royal family on the march to establish the Qara-Khitan.[96] The Khitan Qara-Khitai empire in Central Asia kept Chinese characteristics in their state since the Chinese characteristics appealed to the Muslim Central Asians and helped validate Qara Khita rule over them despite the fact that Han Chinese were to be found among the population the Qara Khitan because it was comparatively small so it is clear that the Chinese characteristics were not kept to appease them the Mongols later moved more Han Chinese into Besh Baliq Almaliq and Samarqand in Central Asia to work as aristans and farmers.[97] The Turfan Buddhist Uighurs the Kingdom Qocho continued to produce the Chinese Qieyun rime dictionary and developed their own pronunciations Chinese characters left over from the Tang influence over the area.[113] The modern Uyghur linguist Abdurishid Yakup pointed out that the Turfan Uyghur Buddhists studied the Chinese language and used Chinese books like Qianziwen (the thousand character classic) and Qieyun *(a rime dictionary) and it was written that "In Qocho city were more than fifty monasteries all titles which are granted by the emperors the Tang dynasty which keep many Buddhist exts as Tripitaka Tangyun Yupuan Jingyin etc." [114] The Chinese defeat at the Battle Talas combined with a series rebellions the largest being An Lushan forced the Chinese emperor to turn to Bayanchur Khan for assistance Seeing this as an ideal opportunity to meddle in Chinese affairs the Khagan agreed quelling several rebellions and defeating an invading Tibetan army from the south As a result the Uyghurs received tribute from the Chinese and Bayanchur Khan was given the daughter the Chinese Emperor to marry (princess Ningo) In 762 in alliance with the Tang Tengri Bögü (Chinese transcription Idigan) launched a campaign against the Tibetans He recaptured for the Tang Emperor the western capital Luoyang Khagan Tengri Bögü met with Manichaean priests from Iran while on campaign and was converted to Manicheism adopting it as the ficial religion the Uyghur Empire. The part Buryat Momgol Transbaikalian Cossack Ataman Grigory Semyonov declared a "Great Mongol State" in 1918 and had designs to unify the Oirat Mongol lands portions Xinjiang Transbaikal Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia Tannu Uriankhai Khovd Hu-lun-pei-erh and Tibet into one Mongolian state.[302] Pictures Uyghur girls wearing Hijab and posing with guns were posted by the Turkistan Islamic Party's Islam Awazi.[545][546][547] Photos released by TIP's Islam Awazi showed Uyghur children in Idlib Syria with AK-47s reading Qurans and Burqa clad women praying.[548] The child soldiers were also shown engaging in religious studies.[549] An anti-Christian mob broke out among the Muslims in Kashgar against the Swedish missionaries in 1923.[306] In the name Islam the Uyghur leader Abdullah Bughra violently physically assaulted the Yarkand-based Swedish missionaries and would have executed them except they were only banished due to the British Aqsaqal's intercession in. The historical area what is modern day Xinjiang consisted the distinct areas the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Iranic Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist religion The area was subjected to Turkification and Islamification at the hands invading Turkic Muslims. Southern Xinjiang is where the majority the Uyghur population resides while it is in Northern Xinjiang cities where the majority the Han (90%) population Xinjiang reside.[341] Southern Xinjiang is dominated by its nine million Uighur majority population while northern Xinjiang is where the mostly urban Han population holds sway.[342] This situation has been followed by an imbalance in the economic situation between the two ethnic groups since the Northern Junghar Basin (Dzungaria) has been more developed than the Uighur south.[343] One saying was that Muslim maidens wear the red that bespeaks a virgin and the transparency their veils reveals a desire to change their raiment's hue [223][224] In order to see Ahmad Kamal and his two companions a veil was slightly lifeted by a donkey borne woman.[225] In the streets the bazar Urumchi Turki women did not veil unlike southern Xinjiang's Muslim bazars where women veiled in public according to. This aspect is very important The Chinese preoccupation with money and material well-being is in many cases the consequence this particular understanding family relationships that emphasizes the idea service rituals and ‘providing for someone’ Family relationships are based on age gender and role-division not on mutual understanding equality or emotional closeness Every family member has to act according to one’s role and do certain things according to one’s position and obligations within the family Parents have to provide for their children and when children grow up they have to provide for their parents Husbands have to provide for their wives and so on At least that was the original concept Nowadays this concept has somewhat changed but it still survives in a more modern form as I will explain in future posts After the riot the Russians sent troops to Sarikol in Tashkurghan and demanded that the Sarikol postal services be placed under Russian supervision the locals Sarikol believed that the Russians would seize the entire district from the Chinese and send more soldiers even after the Russians tried to negotiate with the Begs Sarikol and sway them to their side they failed since the Sarikoli ficials and authorities demanded in a petition to the Amban Yarkand that they be evacuated to Yarkand to avoid being harassed by the Russians and objected to the Russian presence in Sarikol the Sarikolis did not believe the Russian claim that they would leave them alone and only involved themselves in the mail service.[199][200] In Xinjiang temporary de convenance called "waqitliq toy" in Turki was one the prevalent forms polygamy "the mulla who performs the ceremony arranging for the divorce at the same time" with women and men marrying for a fixed period time for several days are a week While temporary was banned in Russian Turkestan Chinese ruled Xinjiang permitted the temporary where it was widespread.[172] Chinese merchants and soldiers foreigners like Russians foreign Muslims and other Turki merchants all engaged in temporary s with Turki women since a lot foreigners lived in Yarkand temporary flourished there more than it did towards areas with fewer foreigners like areas towards Kucha's east.[173] The first story is from the 24 Exemplars Filial Piety (二十四孝 pinyin: Èrshísìxiào) a collection tales about filial piety compiled by Guo Jujing a Yuan Dynasty (1260-1368) scholar from Fujian Province (see Littlejohn 2010 pp 139-140).The 13th story the collection narrates how a man called Guo Ju (郭巨; pinyin: Guō Jù) buried his son alive so that his mother. After being converted to Islam the descendants the previously Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan failed to retain memory their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in. A 28 year old mixed race woman named Amy whose father was Han and whose mother was Uyghur was interviewed by The Atlantic and she spoke being estranged from Uyghurs and viewed Uyghur men's appearances negatively.[418] After a Han Chinese man named Xiaohe and a Uyghur woman named Aygul married the Uyghur women was physically assaulted by her father A Uyghur family cut f their daughter a Uyghur woman Ahman who had a Han Chinese husband named Ming When she had a Han Chinese boyfriend in school her fellow Uyghurs violently assaulted her Uyghurs are ten angered and shun inter-ethnic families with Han men and Uyghur women These interethnic pairs fled Xinjiang to Beijing.[419] Confucianism including classical and Han Confucianism provided a view the cosmos and social order that legitimated the Chinese patrilineal patrilocal and patriarchal family system Confucian emphasis on obligations to patrilineal ancestors and Confucian exaltation filial piety contributed to a moral order in which families were central to human identity and to a family system organized hierarchically so that men and older generations had considerable power over women and younger generations (Ebrey. An indelible impression was left on eastern Xinjiang's administration and culture in Turfan by the Chinese Tang rule which consisted settlements and military farms in addition to the spread Chinese influence such as the sancai three colour glaze in Central Asia and Western Eurasia in Xinjiang there was continued circulation Chinese coins.[87] Satuq Bughra Khan and his son directed endeavors to proselytize Islam among the Turks and engage in military conquests.[60] The Islamic conquest Khotan led to alarm in the east and Dunhuang's Cave 17 which contained Khotanese literary works was closed shut possibly after its caretakers heard that Khotan's Buddhist buildings were razed by the Muslims the Buddhist religion had suddenly ceased to exist in Khotan.[61] According to J P Mallory and Victor H Mair the Chinese describe the existence "white people with long hair" or the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing who lived beyond their northwestern border.[11] With Hui is detested by many Uyghurs even though they are both Muslims religion plays a role at restricting s between non-Muslims and Muslims.[432] Muslims pressure men who marry into their community to convert to Islam.[433] A number Uyghur parents demand Han males and females who want to marry their daughters or sons convert to Islam it was reported that there were many conversions to Islam by Han males who married Uyghur women by a Uyghur man Nurmämät who was interviewed by Dr Smith Finley.[434] A chain aggressive and belligerent press releases in the 1990s making false claims about violent insurrections in Xinjiang and exaggerating both the number Chinese migrants and the total number Uyghurs in Xinjiang were made by the former Soviet supported URFET leader Yusupbek Mukhlisi.[384][385] Uyghur nationalists ten incorrectly claim that 5% Xinjiang's population in 1949 was Han and that the other 95% was Uyghur erasing the presence Kazakhs Xibes and others and ignoring the fact that Hans were around one third Xinjiang's population at 1800 during the time the Qing Dynasty.[325] The peasants are fairly well f as the soil is rich the abundant water-supply free and the taxation comparatively light It was always interesting to meet them taking their live stock into market Flocks sheep with tiny lambs black and white pattered along the dusty road; here a goat followed its master like a dog trotting behind the diminutive ass which the farmer bestrode; or boys clad in the whity-brown native cloth shouted incessantly at donkeys almost invisible under enormous loads forage or carried fowls and ducks in bunches head downwards a sight that always made me long to come to the rescue the luckless birds. The example Chinese thinking the Western being selfish is not another inaccurate depiction Or at least not an accurate view based on the views my community here in the “west” The discussion or at least growing up here is that the Chinese adults cannot fathom the idea “kicking” their kids out at 18 and not caring for them under the pretence allowing your child to become more independent Is it a practice independency or selfishness? Is the opposite oppressive and enabling? This all depends on the semiotics your environment Just an opinion from someone that is raised in the “west” and married into an Anglo-Saxon family with bi-racial children. However in Chinese culture there is another an ancient tradition materialism based on the concept filial piety and on the structure the Chinese family This materialistic worldview is completely different from a simply individualistic or hedonistic materialism because it emanates from the moral and hierarchical Confucian ideal familial interdependence The Chinese family was founded on a ‘reciprocal bargain’ (Knapp 2013) between parents and children; parents took care their children and children would later give back to their parents It is no coincidence that many stories about filial piety revolve around the subject food. Both Han economic migrants from other parts China and Uyghur economic migrants from southern Xinjiang have been flooding into northern Xinjiang since. An example filial behaviour is mourning one’s parents properly if not lavishly This was and still is a way to demonstrate one’s own filial piety In Chinese literature the act mourning one’s parents properly is central Here is a passage from the Ming Dynasty tale The Oil Vendor and the Queen Flowers: After Qing dynasty defeated the Dzungar Oirat Mongols and exterminated them from their native land Dzungaria in the genocide the Qing settled Han Hui Manchus Xibe and Taranchis (Uyghurs) from the Tarim Basin into Dzungaria Han Chinese criminals and political exiles were exiled to Dzhungaria such as Lin Zexu Chinese Hui Muslims and Salar Muslims belonging to banned Sufi orders like the Jahriyya were also exiled to Dzhungaria as well In the aftermath the crushing the 1781 Jahriyya rebellion Jahriyya adherents were exiled. After Thailand deported Uyghurs back to China whom China suspected to have "been on their way to Turkey Syria or Iraq to join jihad" John Kirby a United States State Department spokesman slammed the move and said Thailand should "allow those remaining ethnic Uighurs to depart voluntarily to a country their choice".[570] Uyghur Muslim opposition to a Buddhist Aspara statue in Ürümqi in Xinjiang was cited as a possible reason for its destruction in 2012.[460][461] A Muslim Kazakh viewed a giant Buddha statue near Ürümqi as "alien cultural symbols".[462] Although banned in Islam a form temporary which the man could easily terminate and ignoring the traditional contract was created called convenience by Turki Muslims in Xinjiang and one was conducted by the repetition the Quran's Surah Fatiha by an Emam between Ughlug Beg's great granddaughter Nura Han and. The Chinese government pointed out that it was in the 9th century when Uyghurs migrated into Xinjiang,[71][72] but since many Uyghurs believe in the opposite whatever the Chinese government says they eagerly believe books written by Uyghur authors which glorify their past and assume what authors like Almas write is automatically true.[73] Historians say that it was in the 9th century when Uyghurs moved into Xinjiang.[74][75] Khoja Afaq asked the 5th Dalai Lama when he fled to Lhasa to help his Afaqi faction take control the Tarim Basin (Kashgaria).[123] The Dzungar leader Galdan was then asked by the Dalai Lama to restore Khoja Afaq as ruler Kashgararia.[124] Khoja Afaq collaborated with Galdan's Dzungars when the Dzungars conquered the Tarim Basin from 1678-1680 and set up the Afaqi Khojas as puppet client rulers.[125][126][127] The Dalai Lama blessed Galdan's conquest the Tarim Basin and Turfan Basin.[128] Dr Joanne Smith Finley interviewed Uyghur youth and found that Uyghur parents ten pressure their children daughters and sons not to intermarry the reactions from their children are mixed with some Uyghurs like Mälikä and Aygül saying they would have to obey their parents and split up from their Han partner while other Uyghurs said they would abscond and run away with their Han partner like a 20 year old Uyghur woman named Gülshäm who said she would run f with a Han if the relationship was not allowed by her father.[426] Certainly the mullas do their best to keep the fair sex in their place and are in the habit beating those who show their faces in the Great Bazar But I was told that poetic justice had lately been meted out to one these upholders the law Islam for by mistake he chastised a Kashgari woman married to a Chinaman whereupon the irate husband set upon him with a big stick and castigated him soundly.[180][181][182][183] The name "Altishahr and Zungharia",[277] "Altisheher-Junghar",[278] "Altishähär-Junghariyä"[279] was used to refer to the region Mongols have at times advocated for the historical Oirat Dzungar Mongol area Dzungaria in northern Xinjiang to be annexed to the Mongolian state in the name Pan-Mongolism. In 1006 the Muslim Kara-Khanid ruler Yusuf Kadir (Qadir) Khan Kashgar conquered Khotan ending Khotan's existence as an independent state The war was described as a Muslim Jihad (holy war) by the Japanese Pressor Takao Moriyasu The Karakhanid Turkic Muslim writer Mahmud al-Kashgari recorded a short Turkic language poem about the conquest: English translation: We came down on them like a flood We went out among their cities We tore down the idol-temples We shat on the Buddha's head! The nomadic tribes the Yuezhi are documented in Chinese historical accounts in particular the 2nd-1st century BC "Records the Great Historian" or Shiji by Sima Qian According to these accounts:

One day Yuan Gu’s father and mother decided that his grandfather was too old to be useful so they decided to get rid him Yuan followed his father who used a litter to carry the grandfather to the mountains After his father abandoned the old man Yuan grabbed the litter and brought it home When his father asked him why he replied “Perhaps later you too will become old and will not be able to work again Merely in order to do the right thing I have retrieved it.” Terrified and ashamed his father realized the error his ways retrieved the old man and served him in a filial manner (see. When his father died Shen Fu mourned him and blamed himself for not serving him well It never occurred to him that his father might have been unjust After all he was never at home took concubines and drove Yun out the house only because a misunderstanding But filial piety means sacrifice children for parents Shen Fu could not have blamed his father otherwise he would have been an unfilial son. Muslim works such as Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam contained anti-Buddhist rhetoric and polemic against Buddhist Khotan,[57] aimed at "dehumanizing" the Khotanese Buddhists and the Muslims Kara-Khanids conquered Khotan just 26 years following the completion Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam.[58] Muslims gouged the eyes Buddhist murals along Silk Road caves and Kashgari recorded in his Turkic dictionary an anti-Buddhist poem/folk song.[59] The military victories the Tang in the western regions and Central Asia have been fered as explanations as to why western peoples referred to China by the name "House Tang" (Tangjia) and another theory was suggested that China was called "Han" because the Han dynasty military victories against peoples in the north and the Turkic word for China "Tamghaj" has been possibly derived from Tangjia instead Tabgatch (Tuoba).[85] In the Chu valley in Central Asia Tang dynasty era Chinese coins continued to be copied and minted after the Chinese left. As for the young taking on the burden when there is work to be done or letting the old enjoy the wine and food when these are available that hardly deserves to be called filial (ibid. Likelike Shilao was seriously ill and soon he died Zhu Zhong [Shilao’s adoptive son] mourned him as if he had been his own flesh and blood and buried him according to the appropriate customs and rites so that the whole neighbourhood praised his moral virtues as a filial son After carrying out his filial duties Qin Zhong reopened the oil shop 十老病重,醫治不痊,嗚呼哀哉。朱重捶胸大慟,如親父一般,殯殮成服,七七做了些好事。朱家祖墳在清波門外,朱重舉喪安葬,事事成禮。鄰里皆稱其厚德。事定之後,仍先開店。 It is important to stress the motif the neighbours praising Zhu Zhong’s filial devotion This is a topic that is very common in Chinese emphasis on filial piety shapes the psychological and social identity children They are taught that good children must be filial and obedient so that they experience a sense shame if they feel otherwise Filial piety as it is inculcated in children and as it is viewed by the society is a key social indicator a person’s sense responsibility maturity and reliability Thank you all for this article and for this page I´ve been reading chinese american literature since some months I needed to know more about chinese culture thanks again LikeLike Ja Lama told the Oirat remnants in Xinjiang: "I am a mendicant monk from the Russian Tsar's kingdom but I am born the great Mongols My herds are on the Volga river my water source is the Irtysh There are many hero warriors with me I have many riches Now I have come to meet with you beggars you remnants the Oirats in the time when the war for power begins Will you support the enemy? My homeland is Altai Irtysh Khobuk-sari Emil Bortala Ili and Alatai This is the Oirat mother country By descent I am the great-grandson Amursana the reincarnation Mahakala owning the horse Maralbashi I am he whom they call the hero Dambijantsan I came to move my pastures back to my own land to collect my subject households and bondservants to give favour and to move freely."[291][292] Filial piety is the root all virtues and from which all teaching comes … The body the hair and skin are received from our parents and we do not injure them This is the beginning filial piety When we have established ourselves in the practice the Way so as to make our name famous in future generation and glorify our parents this is the end filial piety Filial piety begins with the serving our parents continues with the serving our ruler and is completed with the establishment our own character (ibid. The Chinese in the Old city Kashgar had mistresses and wives who were Turkic on 3 May 1933 these Turkic women and 100 Chinese were murdered by Kirghiz when they pillaged the city in the Battle Kashgar (1933)[310] In 1933 Sheng Shicai a Chinese warlord seized control Xinjiang with support from the Soviet Union which helped him defeat Ma Zhongying Sheng ruled the region for a decade during which he permitted greater Soviet influence on Xinjiang's ethnic economic and security policies. After being converted to Islam the descendants the previously Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan failed to retain memory their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area.[120][121] According to Joseph Fletcher For centuries Altishar had been 'the abod Islam' Its inhabitants lived under the obligation Jihad.[122] There is a misconception that China has become ‘materialistic’ due to her opening up under Deng Xiaoping and because money is increasingly important There is a certain truth to this idea but it is a misunderstanding to think that Western and Chinese ‘materialism’ are exactly the same Western materialism is the desire to acquire material goods money and power This kind materialism does exist in. In recent years Xinjiang has been a focal point ethnic and other tensions.[399][400] After girls below the age were illegally wedded to Uyghur men prison sentences were handed out to them.[401] The "Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı" which supports the Turkistan Islamic Party claimed that the AIDS virus was being used against Uyghurs.[402][403][404][405] In order to understand Chinese culture and society it is fundamental to understand the Chinese family The family in China was not only a social unit but it represented a whole codified ideology that pervaded the state and the society for thousands years Many the differences between Chinese and Western thinking are comprehensible only from the point view the unique place that the family has in Chinese culture. "if you do not wage jihad you will never be able to get rid the oppression the infidels which makes you abandon the religion and which makes slaves you Thus you will not be able to be rescued from the oppression this world and the torments the hereafter or find eternal happiness until you return to the religion Allah " - Abdul Haq (Memetiming Memeti) a commander in the Uyghur separatist movement Turkistan Islamic Party (East Turkestan Islamic Movement) from a video released by TIP February. According to Han accounts the Yuezhi "were flourishing" during the time the first great Chinese Qin emperor but were regularly in conflict with the neighbouring tribe the Xiongnu to the northeast. In Central Asia the Uighurs viewed the Chinese script as "very prestigious" so when they developed the Old Uyghur alphabet based on the Syriac script they deliberately switched it to vertical like Chinese writing from its original horizontal position in Syriac.[115] According to the PRC the 2nd ETR was Xinjiang's revolution a positive part the communist revolution in China; the 2nd ETR acceded to and 'welcomed' the PLA when it entered Xinjiang a process known as the Incorporation Xinjiang into the People's Republic China. "we have to conquer our own country and purify it all infidels Then we should conquer the infidels' countries and spread Islam The infidels who are usurping our countries have announced war against Islam and Muslims forcing Muslims to abandon Islam and change their beliefs." - Abdullah Mansour leader the Uyghur separatist movement Turkistan Islamic Party (East Turkestan Islamic Movement) from "The Duty Faith and Support," Voice Islam/al-Fajr Media Center August. Almost every Chinaman in Yarkand soldier or civilian takes unto himself a temporary wife dispensing entirely with the services the clergy as being superfluous and most the high ficials also give way to the same amiable weakness their mistresses being in almost all cases natives Khotan which city enjoys the unenviable distinction supplying every large city in Turkestan with courtesans When a Chinaman is called back to his own home in China proper or a Chinese soldier has served his time in Turkestan and has to return to his native city Pekin or Shanghai he either leaves his temporary wife behind to shift for herself or he sells her to a friend If he has a family he takes the boys with him~—if he can afford it—failing that the sons are left alone and unprotected to fight the battle life While in the case daughters he sells them to one his former companions for a trifling sum. Notify me new comments. When father noticed that later letters were not in Yün’s handwriting he asked me whether she was ill I wrote and asked her about it but Yün did not reply After a while father grew quite angry about this and said to me ‘Apparently your wife will not condescend to write letters for your mother!’ It was not until I returned home that I realized the cause the misunderstanding and I wanted to put things right for Yün She hurriedly stopped me however saying ‘I would rather have father blaming me for this than to have mother unhappy with me.’ So things were not cleared up. Buddhism survived in Uyghurstan (Turfan and Qocho) during the Ming dynasty.[117] The Buddhist Uyghurs the Kingdom Qocho and Turfan were converted to Islam by conquest during a ghazat (holy war) at the hands the Muslim Chagatai Khizr Khwaja.[118] Kara Del was a Mongolian ruled and Uighur populated Buddhist Kingdom The Muslim Chagatai Khan Mansur invaded and used the sword to make the population convert. A mass execution 56 captured Syrian soldiers was carried out by the Turkestan Islamic Party along with Jabhat al-Nusra at Abu al-Duhur.[504][505][506][507][508][509][510][511] The modern Uyghurs are now a mixed hybrid Mongoloid (East Asian) and Caucasian.[48][49][50] Fellow Al-Qaeda aligned Islamist organizations with the aim of a worldwide Islamic Caliphate cooperate with TIP (ETIM) whose own goal is an Islamic State with TIP fighting against the militaries of Syria and Pakistan in addition to China and being assisted by Central Asian Gulf European and North American based outfits and the TIP leader Abdullah Mansour used the words "mujahideen" and "jihadi operation" in a Uighur language video produced by TIP's Islam Awazi (ئىسلام ئاۋازى) Media Center when TIP took responsibility for the 29 October 2013 Tianmen Square terrorist attack.[518] Becoming a Muslim results in more acceptance among Uyghurs Han spouses a case in Urumqi a Han male who converted to Islam and married a Uyghur woman was reported by an 18 year old Uyghur male Ömär who lived in the same area as the man and voiced the approval the Uyghur community the man adopted doppa hat went to the mosque to pray and changed his name to Jümäkhun and was accepted as a real Muslim while another case a Han woman converting to Islam to marry a Uyghur was viewed with suspicion since the Uyghurs suspected her faking the conversion and she would not integrate with the Uyghur community. Guo Ju was a poor man burdened with a wife mother and child One day he said to his wife: “We are so poor that we cannot even support mother Furthermore our son shares mother’s food Why don’t we bury the child? We can have another child but if mother dies we cannot replace her.” The wife did not dare to contradict him He began to dig the grave for his own son and suddenly he discovered a vase full gold in the earth – a gift Heaven to the filial son (see Lang. Many Uyghurs oppose mixed race s and the majority Uyghur men interviewed by Pressor Blaine Kaltman viewed Han Chinese women as physically unattractive and none them were dating Han women and had no desire to vieweing them as alien and "too skinny" while they said they were attracted to Turkish and Russian actresses Han parents in turn were negative towards Uyghur men and believed that women would suffer abuse at the hands a Uyghur spouse.[439] Han youth were more open to interracial dating and Han parents both mothers and fathers were more willing to let their sons date Uyghur girls while they object to their daughters dating Uyghur boys since they believe their girls would be in danger.[440] During the usurpation Wang Mang in China the dependent states the protectorate rebelled and returned to Xiongnu domination in AD 13 Over the next century Han China conducted several expeditions into the region re-establishing the protectorate from 74-76 91-107 and from 123 onward After the fall the Han dynasty (220) the protectorate continued to be maintained by Cao Wei (until 265) and the Western Jin Dynasty (from 265 onwards). Pliny the Elder Chap XXIV "Taprobane") reports a curious description the Seres (in the territories northwestern China) made by an embassy from Taprobane (Ceylon) to Emperor Claudius saying that they "exceeded the ordinary human height had flaxen hair and blue eyes and made an uncouth sort noise by way talking" suggesting they may be referring to the ancient Caucasian populations the. The Islamic attacks and conquest the Buddhist cities east Kashgar was started by the Turkic Karakhanid Satok Bughra Khan who in 966 converted to Islam and many tales emerged about the Karakhanid ruling family's war against the Buddhists Satok Bughra Khan's nephew or grandson Ali Arslan was slain by the Buddhists during the war Buddhism lost territory to Islam during the Karakhanid reign around the Kashgar area.[53] A long war ensued between Islamic Kashgar and Buddhist Khotan which eventually ended in the conquest Khotan by Kashgar.[54] Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai In northern Tibet Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers and then the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh.[315] Tibetan troops robbed and killed Kazakhs 400 miles east Lhasa at Chamdo when the Kazakhs were entering Tibet.[316][317] In 1934 1935 1936-1938 from Qumil Eliqsan led the Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu and the amount was estimated at 18,000 and they entered Gansu and Qinghai.[318] It was pleasant to see the women riding alone on horseback managing their mounts to perfection They formed a sharp contrast to their Persian sisters who either sit behind their husbands or have their steeds led by the bridle; and instead keeping silence in public as is the rule for the shrouded women Iran these farmers' wives chaffered and haggled with the men in the bazar outside the city transacting business with their veils thrown back. Andijani (Kokandi) Turkic Muslim merchants (from modern Uzbekistan) who shared the same religion a similar culture cuisine clothing and phenotypes with the Altishahri Uyghurs frequently married local Altishahri women and the name "chalgurt" was applied to their mixed race daughters and sons the daughters were left behind with their Uyghur Altishahri mothers while the sons were taken by the Kokandi fathers when they returned to their homeland.[169] The aforementioned motif food as a demonstration love is particularly interesting because until today Taiwanese and Chinese parents show that they care about their children by giving them food They might put pressure on their children every day they might push them and make their lives unhappy but they will keep on feeding them as a token parental love Support this website – take a look at one our books on Amazon The Turkic Qarakhanid and Uyghur Qocho Kingdoms were both states founded by invaders while the native populations the region were Iranic and Tocharian peoples along with some Chinese in Qocho and Indians who married and mixed with the Turkic invaders and prominent Qarakhanid people such as Mahmud Kashghari hold a high position among modern Uyghurs.[91] Kashghari viewed the least Persian mixed Turkic dialects as the "purest" and "the most elegant".[92] Persian Arab and other western Asian writers called China by the name "Tamghaj".[93] The name "East Turkestan" was created by the Russian Sinologist Nikita Bichurin to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829.[8] "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin and not Xinjiang as a whole with Dzungaria being excluded from the area consisting "East Turkestan".

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications new posts by email Join 33 other followers The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (Turkistan Islamic Party) is allied with the Islamic Movement Uzbekistan[463] along with the Pakistani Taliban (Tehreek i Taliban Pakistan)[464] and Al-Qaeda.[465][466] Al-Qaeda included an article in its magazine "Resurgence" promoting East Turkestan Independence titled "Did You Know? 10 Facts About East Turkistan" the article was ridden with errors and false claims such as claiming Quranic education was banned and included other claims such as "East Turkistan has never been a part China" and it was "independent China for more than 1,800 years" "In 1949 93 percent the population East Turkistan was Uyghur (Turk Muslims) while 7 percent was Chinese" and that "After the Communist takeover in 1949 more than 4.5 million Turkish Muslims were killed by the Communist government" with Al-Qaeda calling for the "occupied Muslim land" "East Turkistan" to be "recovered [into] the shade the Islamic Caliphate".[516] In ancient China the area was known as "Xiyu" or "Western Regions" a name that became prevalent in Chinese records after the Han Dynasty took control the region.[1][7] For the Uyghurs the traditional name the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang was Altishahr which means "six cities" in the Uyghur language The region Dzungaria in northern Xinjiang was named after its native inhabitants the Dzungar Mongols. The relationship to China was used by the Qara-Khanids to enhace their standing since Central Asian Muslims associated prestige and grandeur with China so the Arabic title "the king the East and China" (malek al-mašreq wa'l-Ṣin) and the Turkic title "Khan China" Ṭamḡāj Khan was extensively employed by Khans the Qara-khanids.[106] Although in modern Urdu Chin means China Chin referred to Central Asia in Muhammad Iqbal's time which is why Iqbal wrote that "Chin is ours" (referring to the Muslims) in his song Tarana-e-Milli.[107] Uyghur prostitutes were encountered by Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim who wrote they were especially to be found in Khotan.[191][192][193] He commented on "venereal diseases".[194] Two different branches the junior Bughra (bull camel) and the Arslan (lion) formed the Qarakhanid royal family The title "Khan China" (Tamghaj Khan) (تمغاج خان) was used by the Qarakhanid rulers.[89] The Qarakhanids were the ones who are responsible for the modern Uyghur population being Muslim and the Qarakhanids were converted when Satuq Bughra Khan converted to Islam after contacts with the Muslim Samanids. Bughra Khan was overthrown by his nephew Satuq when Satuq converted to Islam the Arslan Khans were also toppled and Balasaghun taken by Satuq with the conversion the Qarakhanid Turk population to Islam following Satuq's accession to power and the spread Islam among the Qarakhanid Turks led to the conquest Transoxiana and the Samanids by the Qarakhanids and the Qarakhanids were the people who bequeathed the Islamic religion to the modern Uyghurs while the modern Uyghurs adopted the modern name their ethnic group from the Uyghur Qocho Kingdom and Uyghur Empire.[90] Syrian Churches have been demolished by Turkistan Islamic Party Uyghur fighters who exalted in the acts destruction and in Homs and Idlib battlefields the Turkistan Islamic Party cooperated with Uzbek brigades and Jabhat al-Nusra Jabhat al-Nusra and IS (ISIL) compete with each other to recruit Uyghur fighters.[514] In the late 19th century it was still being proposed by some people that two separate parts be created out Xinjiang the area north the Tianshan and the area south the Tianshan while it was being argued over whether to turn Xinjiang into a province.[6] Han and Hui intermarry with each other much more than Hui do with Uyghurs despite Hui and Uyghur both being Muslim and according to Uyghurs Hui s with Uyghur frequently break apart and end in divorce.[436] Children who are mixed Han and Uyghur ethnicities are known as erzhuanzi (二转子) and Uyghurs call them piryotki.[437] They are shunned by Uyghurs at social gatherings and events.[438] Exceptions through general opposition to inter could take place in event the Han converting to Islam or the Uyghur and Han partners moving away to another location.[420] Coins with both Chinese and Karoshthi inscriptions have been found in the southern. Filial piety was a central value in traditional Chinese culture Its importance went far beyond that the biblical commandment “honour thy mother and thy father” Filial piety was and still is a value based on strict principles hierarchy obligation and obedience It is no exaggeration to say that it was the very foundation the hierarchical structure the Chinese family and thus the Chinese society as a whole That does not mean that the idea filial piety has not changed over the centuries or that children are always filial But we need first all to understand what xiao means where it comes from and how it was practised in the past before we can examine the exceptions and the changes After the Qing dynasty reconquered this region in 1884 the area was designated Xinjiang which was used to refer to any area a former Chinese empire that had been previously lost but was regained by the Qing but eventually meant this northwestern Xinjiang alone.[9] In the Uyghur language Xinjiang is considered more center than northwestern in orientation.[10] The Qing banned Khoqandi merchants from marrying Kashgari women Due to 'group jealously' disputes broke out due to Chinese and Turki crossing both religious and ethnic differences and engaging and sex Turki locals viewed fellow Turkic Muslim Andijanis also as competitors for their own women A Turki proverb said Do not let a man from Andijan into your house.[170] Turki women were able to inherited the property their Chinese husbands after. Turkish passports were used by Uyghurs who were seeking to contact Mujahidin Indonesia Timur a pro-ISIS organization in Sulawesi in Indonesia.[568] The Turkic Muslims the Turfan and Kumul Oases then submitted to the Qing dynasty China and asked China to free them from the Dzungars The Qing accepted the rulers Turfan and Kumul as Qing vassals The Qing dynasty waged war against the Dzungars for decades until finally defeating them and then Qing Manchu Bannermen carried out the Dzungar genocide nearly wiping them from existence and depopulating Dzungaria The Qing then freed the Afaqi Khoja leader Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khoja Jihan from their imprisonment by the Dzungars and appointed them to rule as Qing vassals over the Tarim Basin The Khoja brothers decided to renege on this deal and declare themselves as independent leaders the Tarim Basin The Qing and the Turfan leader Emin Khoja crushed their revolt and China then took full control both Dzungaria and the Tarim. When your parents are alive comply with the rites in serving them; when they die comply with the rites in burying them; comply with the rites in sacrificing to them (2.5) Give your father and mother no other cause for anxiety than illness (2.6) Nowadays for a man to be filial means no more than that he is able to provide his parents with food Even dogs and horses are in some ways provided with food If a man shows no reverence where is the difference? (2.7) What is difficult to manage is the expression on one’s face In early China besides expressing love or care the presentation food or by extension material support creates obligation If one feeds a man he is obligated to repay your kindness This sense obligation was so strong that it could be used as a means to control others In the same way a child is obligated to repay his parents for the food and care they provided him as a helpless child (Knapp 2013) Yün usually enclosed notes to me in letters from home so one day my father said to me ‘Since your wife can handle brush and ink she can write your mother’s letters for her.’ But sometime later there was some gossip at home and mother suspected Yün writing something improper about it in one her letters After that she did not let Yün take up the brush. Lobbying by the Swedish Christian missionaries led to child for under 15 year old girls to be banned by the Chinese Governor in Urumchi although the Uyghur Muslims ignored the law Uyghur women converts to Christianity did not wear the veil and local Uyghur Muslim women were inspired by the Swedish missionary Christian women to be independent and pursue education instead saying “Look at the Swedes they remain single their whole lives if they want to.” and one man was astonished that Jesus had a conversation with the Samaritan woman.[209] The meaning this tale is clear When faced with the dilemma having to choose between one’s parents and one’s children (or wife for that matter) one always has to choose the parents This is the hierarchical principle the superiority the elder over the younger It is the duty children to take care their parents at all costs even if that means sacrificing one’s own children Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri released a statement supporting Jihad in Xinjiang against Chinese in the Caucasus against the Russians and naming Somalia Yemen Syria Iraq and Afghanistan as places warfare.[472] Zawahiri endorsed "jihad to liberate every span land the Muslims that has been usurped and violated from Kashgar to Andalusia and from the Caucasus to Somalia and Central Africa".[473] Uyghurs inhabit Kashgar the city which was mentioned by Zawahiri.[474] The first wife is a good woman the second a witch and the third a prostitute (birgä täkkän yaxši ikkigä täkkän baxši üčkä täkkän paxši.) A family with many women will be miserable (Qizi barniñ därdi bar.) Let your daughter marry or you will die regret instead illness (Qiziñ Öyde ärsiz uzaq turmiğay ölärsän puşaymanda sän ağirmay.) Woman: long hair short wit (Xotun xäqniñ çaçi uzun ä qli qisqa.) A woman without a husband is like a horse without a halter (Ärsiz xotun yugänsiz baytal.) Men rely on life a wife relies on her husband (Är jeni bilän xişri. Different ethnic groups had different attitudes toward prostitution George W Hunter (missionary) noted that Turki Muslims (Uyghurs) would prostitute their daughters while such a thing would never happen among Tungan Muslims (Chinese Muslims) which was why Turki prostitutes were common around the country.[308] During the Kumul Rebellion in Xinjiang in the 1930s Buddhist murals were deliberately vandalized by Muslims.[309] The Liao Chinese traditions and the Qara Khitai's clinging helped the Qara Khitai avoid Islamization and conversion to Islam the Qara Khitai used Chinese and Inner Asian features in their administrative system.[104] Muslim writers wrote that "Tamghājī silver coins" (sawmhā-yi ṭamghājī) were present in Balkh while tafghājī was used by the writer Ḥabībī the Qarakhānid leader Böri Tigin (Ibrāhīm Tamghāj Khān) was possibly the one who minted. Different ethnic groups had different attitudes toward prostitution George W Hunter (missionary) noted that while Tungan Muslims (Chinese Muslims) would almost never prostitute their daughters Turki Muslims (Uyghurs) would prostitute their daughters which was why Turki prostitutes were common around the country.[195] Turkic Muslims in different areas Xinjiang held derogatory views each other such as claiming that Chinese men were welcomed by the loose Yamçi girls.[178] Inter and patronage prostitutes were among the forms interaction between the Turki in Xinjiang and visiting Chinese merchants.[179] Le Coq reported that in his time sometimes Turkis distrusted Tungans (Hui Muslims) more than Han Chinese so that a Tungan would never be given a Turki woman in by her father while a (Han) Chinese men could be given a Turki woman in by her father.[201] In Kashgar in 1933 the Chinese kept concubines and spouses who were Turkic women.[202] You are commenting using your Facebook account ( Log Out /  Change ) In the 1980s 90% Xinjiang Han lived in north Xinjiang (Jiangbei historical Dzungaria) In the mid-1990s Uyghurs consisted 90% south Xinjiang (Nanjiang historical Tarim)'s population.[344] In 1980 the liberal reformist Hu Yaobang announced the expulsion ethnic Han cadres in Xinjiang to eastern China Hu was purged in 1987 for a series demonstrations that he is said to have provoked in other areas China The prominent Xinjiang and national ficial Wang Zhen criticized Hu for destroying Xinjiang Han cadres' "sense security" and for exacerbating ethnic tensions.[379] After Xinjiang was converted into a province by the Qing the provincialisation and reconstruction programs initiated by the Qing resulted in the Chinese government helping Uyghurs migrate from southern Xinjiang to other areas the province like the area between Qitai and the capital which was formerly nearly completely inhabited by Han Chinese and other areas like Urumqi Tacheng (Tabarghatai) Yili Jinghe Kur Kara Usu Ruoqiang Lop Nor and the Tarim River's lower reaches.[156] It was during Qing times that Uyghurs were settled throughout all Xinjiang from their original home cities in the western. From the 1950s to 1970s 92% migrants to Xinjiang were Han and 8% were Hui Most these migrants were unorganized settlers - "as [they are still] now" coming from neighboring Gansu province to seek trading opportunities.[344] Mixed Han-Uyghur partners are pressured to leave their parents and sometimes leave Xinjiang entirely from 1911-1949 when the ruled China Han Chinese Generals in the military were sought after and wooed by Uyghur women due to their poverty but in 1949 when the Communists took over the Uyghur population branded them as milliy munapiq (ethnic scum) and threatened and coerced them into accompanying their Han partners in moving to Taiwan Uyghur parents warn not to return to Xinjiang their female and male children if they married Han after moving to "China proper" for attending educational institutions so they can avoid ostracism and condemnation from their fellow Uyghurs a case where a Han male dating Uyghur woman told Dr Smith Finley about a relationship between a Han man and her elder sister resulted in the Uyghur community condemning and pressuring her mother.[321] Modern genetic analysis suggests that aboriginal inhabitants had a high proportion DNA European origin.[19] As part an effort to reach out to foreign Muslims on the Ink Swords (Medad al-Sayouf) Network an Arabic language magazine titled "Islamic Turkistan" (Turkistan al-Islamia) was issued by ETIM in January 2009 and it described ETIM as "a group workers for Islam and the mujahideen in the Cause Allah in order to liberate Turkistan" and said that the aim ETIM was to "establish an Islamic Caliphate in the light the Book and the Sunnah" "in the Cause Allah promotion virtue prevention vice and the call to Allah." to create an Islamic State by. Without doubt the pillar the Chinese family structure was the concept filial piety In Chinese filial piety is expressed by the character 孝(pinyin: xiào) The character xiao is made up an upper and a lower part The first part is derived from the character lao (老 pinyin: lǎo) which means ‘old’ The second part is the character 子 (pinyin: zi) which means ‘son’ There are different interpretations the meaning the character xiao: 1) the old are supported by the younger generation; 2) the young are burdened and oppressed by. According to Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes in 1920 The population Chinese Turkestan is estimated at about one million and a half It is almost entirely confined to the oases chief which are Kashgar with 300,000 Yangi Shahr with 200,000 Yarkand with 200,000 and Aksu and Khotan each with 190,000 inhabitants The population may also be grouped into two main classes as " settled " and " nomadic," with a small semi-nomadic division The nomads together with the semi-nomads do not aggregate more than 125,000 in all [271] There were around 2,900,173 Uyghurs. Fill in your details below or click an icon to. In the spring 1792 I was living at Chenchou […] At that time my younger brother Chi-tang was working under my father While there I received a letter from Yün saying ‘Your younger brother Chi-tang once borrowed money from a lady neighbour and asked me to be the guarantor Now she is anxious to have the money back.’ I asked Chi-tang about it but he only said that Yün was meddling in his affairs I merely replied at the end a letter ‘Father and I are both ill and we have no money to repay the loan Wait until younger brother returns home and let him take care it himself.’ Uyghur is the dominant language in southern Xinjiang while Mandarin is the dominant language in northern Xinjiang.[391] Turkic Empires after the Tang gained prestige by connecting themselves with north Chinese states with the Qara-Khitay and Qara-Khanid khans using the title "Chinese emperor" Khitay was used by the Qara-Khitay and Tabghach was used by the Qarakhanids.[88] The entry into the previously Indo-European Soghdian and Tokharian speaking Central Eurasia and Xinjiang tribes Turkic speaking origin and the started Turkicisation originate in the 7th century with the disintegration the Turkic Khaganate resulting in Eurasia being populated by many peoples who consider themselves Turks. When my wife and I were living at home we could not avoid pawning our belongings if we had unforeseen expenses; at first we somehow found ways to make ends meet but later we were always in need […] First our circumstances aroused talk amongst local gossips and later scorn from our family The ancients were right: ‘Lack talent in a woman is a virtue.’ [according to Shen Fu his wife was too talented and therefore unsuitable to be. Some Uyghur scholars claim modern Uyghurs descent from both the Turkic Uyghurs and the pre-Turkic Tocharians (Yuezhi) and relatively fair hair and eyes as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits are not uncommon among Uyghurs Genetic analyses suggest West Eurasian ("Caucasoid") maternal contribution to Uyghurs is 42.6% and the paternal between 43.9% and 61.2% The estimation European component in modern Uyghur population ranged from.

The Buryat Mongol Agvan Dorzhiev tried advocating for Oirat Mongol areas like Tarbagatai Ili and Altai to get added to the Outer Mongolian state.[303] Out concern that China would be provoked this proposed addition the Oirat Dzungaria to the new Outer Mongolian state was rejected by the Soviets.[304] Swedish Christian missionary J E Lundahl wrote in 1917 that the local Muslim women in Xinjiang married Chinese men because a lack Chinese women the relatives the woman and other Muslims reviled the women for. The Tang Chinese reign over Qocho and Turfan and the Buddhist religion left a lasting legacy upon the Buddhist Uyghur Kingdom Qocho with the Tang presented names remaining on the more than 50 Buddhist temples with Emperor Tang Taizong's edicts stored in the "Imperial Writings Tower " and Chinese dictionaries like Jingyun Yuian Tang yun and da zang jing (Buddhist scriptures) stored inside the Buddhist temples and Persian monks also maintained a Manichaean temple in the Kingdom the Persian Hudud al-'Alam uses the name "Chinese town" to called Qocho the capital the Uyghur kingdom.[112] Another consequence this understanding love and care is that responsibility is mainly regarded as ‘providing’ for someone rather than as caring about each other’s feelings For example in traditional Chinese society a man could have more wives regardless whether wives were jealous But as long as he provided for them he was considered a responsible husband Nowadays there are many cases husbands who have mistresses or children who barely talk with their parents But as long as husbands provide for their wives and children provide for their parents they are considered responsible It is very important to understand this point because when Chinese or Taiwanese talk about responsibility their understanding responsibility may differ from that in. Although currently Uyghurs have an extremely low inter overall Dr Joanne Smith Finley wrote that there is tiny rise in s between Han men and Uyghur women and out all ethnic groups ahead Hui and Kazakhs Han are the ethnic group with whom Uyghurs marry with the most within their total small rate inter and Uyghur females married out more than Uyghur males at to 0.2% with Uyghur males being the least likely people to intermarry in Xinjiang.[421] Multiple studies and interviews found that the current prevalent form inter between Han and Uyghur is Han men being taken as husbands by Uyghur women.[422] Following insurgencies against Governor Jin Shuren in the early 1930s a rebellion in Kashgar led to the establishment the short-lived First East Turkistan Republic (First ETR) in 1933 The ETR claimed authority around the Tarim Basin from Aksu in the north to Khotan in the south and was suppressed by the armies the Chinese Muslim warlord Ma Zhongying. Interracial dating is prevalent among Han people and "Chinese Uighur" (assimilated Uyghurs who speak Mandarin) one government employee Uyghur man interviewed by Pressor Kaltman said he does not anticipate a Han marrying his daughter but he would not object to it if she wanted to Pressor Kaltman interviewed an additional Uyghur man who said he would not allow a Han woman to date his son because his descendants would not be raised as Uyghur,[442] but he would approve his son marrying Kazakh or Russian girls.[443] The Qara Khitai used the "image China" to legitimize their ruler to the Central Asian Muslims since China had a good reputation at the time among Central Asian Muslims before the Mongol invasions it was viewed as extremely civilized known for its unique script its expert artisans were well known justice and religious tolerance were among the virtues attributed to Chinese despite their idol worship and the Turk Arab Byzantium Indian rulers and the Chinese emperor were known as the world's "five great kings" the memory Tang China was engraved into the Muslim perception so their continued to view China through the lens the Tang dynasty and anachronisms appeared in Muslim writings due to this even after the end the Tang China was known as chīn (چين) in Persian and as ṣīn (صين) in Arabic while the Tang dynasty capital Changan was known as Ḥumdān (حمدان).[98] Feeding Obeying Sacrificing – The Ethics Filial Piety The concept underlying the principle filial piety is simple Parents gave life to children gave them food and clothes an education etc For all the things that children received from parents children have an eternal obligation towards them They have a debt towards their parents a debt that can never be fully repaid The only thing that children can do in order to repay at least a small part this debt is to take care their parents in their old age to make them proud and happy to obey and. He procured me a Chinese interpreter Fong Shi a pleasant and agreeable young Chinaman who wrote his mother-tongue with ease and spoke Jagatai Turki fluently and—did not smoke opium He left his wife and child behind him in Khotan Liu Darin making himself answerable for their maintenance But I also paid Fong Shi three months' salary in advance and that money he gave to his wife Whenever I could find leisure he was to give me lessons in Chinese and we began at once even before we left Khotan.[187][188] Pressor James A Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at temple 9 the Uyghur patrons until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants.[51] In 2009 the remains individuals found at the Xiaohe Tomb complex were analyzed for Y-DNA and mtDNA markers The study found that while Y-DNA corresponded to West Eurasian populations the mtDNA haplotypes were an admixture East Asian and European origin.[31] The geographic location where this admixing took place is suggested to be somewhere in Southern Siberia before these people moved into the Tarim Basin Xiaohe is the oldest archaeological site yielding human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin. The Qarakhanid ruler Kashgar was called Tamghaj Khan while the Khitan ruler was called the Khan Chīn some Khitans migrated into western areas like the Qarakhanid state even before the establishment the Kara-Khitan state.[94] During the Liao dynasty Han Chinese lived in Kedun situated in present-day Mongolia.[95] We can see here that the father becomes filial because he thinks what will happen to himself when he is old If he abandoned his father he would break the hierarchical structure the family which he will be a beneficiary in his old age In the second part this post I will be examining the concepts hierarchy and obedience and I will try to explain why filial piety and the hierarchical family structure have been so resilient and have secured the continuity Chinese culture and society throughout the centuries I think that many Westerners ten fail to understand how extreme at least by Western standards the concept filial piety was in traditional Chinese society In order to show this point I will quote here two ancient Chinese stories that illustrate the ethics filiality From 1949 to 2001 education has expanded greatly in the region with 6,221 primary schools up from 1,335; 1,929 middle schools up from 9 and institutions higher learning at 21 up from 1 The illiteracy rate for young and middle-age people has decreased to less than 2% Agricultural science has made inroads into the region as well as innovative methods road construction in the desert. The claims these "Uyghur nationalist historians" which the majority Uyghurs believe in are not backed up by actual evidence.[67][68] The belief that they were native to the Tarim Basin is held by most Uyghurs.[69] Qurban Wäli is another ultra-nationalist Uyghur who engaged in historical revisionism and claimed Uyghur civilization is 6,000 years old and native to Xinjiang.[70] Islam Awazi released photos a Turkistan Islamic Party training camp.[529] Images Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party fighters in Syria were released by Islam Awazi.[530] The Turkistan Islamic Party released photos showing a Uyghur media team with their camera and laptop. In 779 Tengri Bögü incited by sogdian traders living in Ordu Baliq planned an invasion China to take advantage the accession a new emperor Tengri Bögü's uncle Tun Bagha Tarkhan opposed this plan fearing it would result in Uyghur complete assimilation into Han-Chinese culture In 840 the Kyrgyz tribe invaded from the north with a force around 80,000 horsemen They sacked the Uyghur capital at Ordu Baliq razing it to the ground The Kyrgyz captured the Uyghur Khagan Kürebir (Hesa) and promptly beheaded him The Kyrgyz went on to destroy other Uyghur cities throughout their empire burning them to the ground The last legitimate khagan Öge was assassinated in 847 having spent his 6-year reign in fighting the Kyrgyz and the supporters his rival Ormïzt a brother Kürebir The Kyrgyz invasion destroyed the Uyghur Empire causing a diaspora Uyghur people across Central Asia. Valikhanov claimed that foreigners children in Turkistan were referred to by the name çalğurt Turki women were bashed as being negative character by a Kashgari Turki woman's Tibetan husband- racist views each other's ethnicities between partners in interethnic s still persisted sometimes It was mostly Turki women marrying foreign men with a few cases the opposite occurring in this era.t[168] Some Uyghur ultra-nationalist revisionists worried at the prospect that they are descendants migrants into Xinjiang and could be seen as invaders and not the indigenous inhabitants have sought to revise history like Turghun Almas in his book Uyghurlar claiming that Turkic Uyghurs were always natives Xinjiang claiming that the Tocharian Tarim mummies were Uyghurs claiming Uyghurs invented gunpowder paper compass printing and that Uyghur civilization is 6,000 years old and is the origin all world civilization.[65][66] Filial piety in the past did not refer only to serving your parents when alive and mourning after death The important thing is to make a name for your parents Serving when alive and mourning after death are certainly filial acts However if a son can study and establish himself transfer filial piety to loyalty and win great renown so that people can trace his virtue to his parents and say “how lucky to have a son like this,” this is called making a name for your parents and the greatness filial There are five human relationships the sovereign and parents are the most important Those who are filial to their parents will also be loyal to their ruler Serving his parents with filial piety thus his loyalty can be transferred to his sovereign (ibid. An estimate 65,000 Kirghiz 92,000 Hui 326,000 Kazakh 187,000 Han and 2,984,000 Uyghur adding up to a total population 3,730,000 in all Xinjiang in 1941 was estimated by Toops and 4,334,000 people lived in Xinjiang according to Hoppe in 1949.[273] 3,730,000 people lived in Xinjiang and 3,439,000 those people were Muslims and 2,941,000 those Muslims were Uighurs in the 1940s.[274] Jean Bowie Shor wrote that there were 3,000,000 Uigurs and gave 3,500,000 as the total amount residents in Xinjiang.[275] In the 1980s there was a scattering student demonstrations and riots against police action that took on an ethnic aspect; and the Baren Township riot in April 1990 an abortive uprising resulted in more than 50 deaths. In Urumqi (Uyghur) Muslim women who married Han Chinese men were assaulted by hordes (Uyghur) Muslims on 11 July 1947 and the women were seized and kidnapped by the hordes Old (Uyghur) Muslim men forcibly married the women In response to the chaos a curfew was placed at 11 p.m.[319] The s between Muslim (Uyghur) women and Han Chinese men infuriated the Uyghur leader Isa Yusuf Alptekin.[320] Islam Awazi released a video showing Burqa clad women being militarily trained by the Turkistan Islamic Party with guns and RPGs.[532][533][534][535] Camps training children for Jihad are being run by the Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria.[536] Photos the child military training camps in Syria were released by the Turkistan Islamic Party who labelled the children as "little mujahideen".[537][538] Uyghur nationalist historian Turghun Almas and his book Uyghurlar (The Uyghurs) and Uyghur nationalist accounts history were galvanized by Soviet stances on history "firmly grounded" in Soviet Turcological works and both heavily influenced and partially created by Soviet historians and Soviet works on Turkic peoples.[369] Soviet historiography spawned the rendering Uyghur history found in Uyghurlar.[370] Almas claimed that Central Asia was "the motherland the Uyghurs" and also the "ancient golden cradle world culture".[371] Pingback: Law In Imperial China – Confucianism And Legalism | The Greater China Journal Pingback: ¿Por qué en China hay tantos hombres solteros y por qué están tan frustrados? | Communities in which there has been racial conflict may put negative pressure on interracial couples and act as an impediment to them.[427] Conflict and war between different races leads to community prejudice against couples consisting the two different races.[428] Fundamentalist Islamists prevent Uyghur women who are infected with HIV from getting drugs for their condition.[406] Hui Muslim drug dealers are accused by Uyghurs pushing heroin on Uyghurs.[407] Heroin has been vended by Hui dealers.[408] There is a typecast image in the public eye heroin being the province Hui dealers.[409] Hui have been involved in the Golden Triangle. Uyghur Muslims rioted against Indian Hindu traders when the Hindus attempted to practice their religious affairs in public and also rose up against the Swedish Christian mission. This is an interesting article about Filial Piety and the historic depiction it However as I read on – it seems more an critique on Filial Piety and Chinese Culture under that ideology rather than an overview Filial Piety There are a few areas that I feel is not an accurate depiction either the Chinese Culture or the view the West For example the tied between materialism and filial piety is a bit far stretched – or at least in my own house hold it is The idea [“Love is shown and displayed through material care.” ] is too simplistic 3) the purpose the family is the continuation the family line (chronological from top to bottom) (see Ikels. Most Uyghurs in both Xinjiang and in Han cities Shenzhen Shanghai and Beijing desire that their son marry with fellow Uyghurs to preserve their culture a Uyghur man interviewed by Professor Kaltman in Urumqi expressed his willingness to let a Han man marry his daughter but wanted his son to marry another Uyghur [441] Idols "infidels" were subjected to desecration by being defecated upon by Muslims when the "infidel" country was conquered by the Muslims according to Muslim tradition (it is not Muslim tradition).[64] In 1936 after Sheng Shicai expelled 30,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai Hui led by General Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs until there were 135 them left.[311][312][313] From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating the Kazakhs into designated pastureland in Qinghai but Hui Tibetans and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against. Culturally Xinjiang maintains 81 public libraries and 23 museums compared to none of each in 1949 and Xinjiang has 98 newspapers in 44 languages up from 4 newspapers in 1952 According to official statistics the ratios of doctors medical workers medical clinics and hospital beds to people surpass the national average and immunization rates have reached 85%.[417] The natives although all Mahammadans have a strong predilection for the Chinese and seem to like their manners and customs and never seem to resent this behaviour to their womankind their own manners customs and morals (?) being the very loosest description.[184][185] [58][59][61][62][63] In Turkic: kälginläyü aqtïmïz kändlär üzä čïqtïmïz furxan ävin yïqtïmïz burxan üzä sïčtïmïz [64] The fact that children have to repay their obligation towards parents also leads to the idea that children are a sort old-age insurance In traditional Chinese society children literally had to serve their parents The material motivation behind filial piety is manifest in the ancient tale Yuan Gu (原谷 pinyin: Yuángǔ): Aladdin an Arabic Islamic story which is set in China may have been referring to Central Asia.[108] In the Persian epic Shahnameh the Chin and Turkestan are regarded as the eame the Khan Turkestan is called the. Thus the young Chinaman's proud dream one day riding through the gates Peking and beholding the palace (yamen) his fabulously mighty emperor as well as perhaps securing through my recommendation a lucrative post and finally though by no means last in his estimation exchanging the Turki wife he had left behind in Khotan for a Chinese bride—this proud dream was pricked at the foot Arka-tagh Sadly and silently he stood alone in the desert gazing after us as we continued our way towards the far-distant goal his youthful ambition.[189][190] Images Buddhist and Manichean Turkic Uyghurs from the Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes Buddhist murals at the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves were damaged by local Muslim population whose religion proscribed figurative images sentient beings the eyes and mouths in particular were ten gouged out Pieces murals were also broken f for use as fertilizer by the locals.[52] Since the Chinese economic reform from the late 1970s has exacerbated uneven regional development more Uyghurs have migrated to Xinjiang cities and some Hans have also migrated to Xinjiang for independent economic advancement Increased ethnic contact and labor competition coincided with Uyghur separatist terrorism from the 1990s such as the 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings.[378] Han Youwen a Salar general once served as vice chairman Xinjiang Manchu Daur Tartar Tajik Xibo Uzbeks Russians Kirgiz Hui Mongols Kazakhs Han and Uyghur make up the ethniciites in Xinjiang the Uyghur population has grown along with the Kazakh there were 1.3 million Kazakhs and 8.4 million Uyghurs in 2001 an increase from 900,000 Kazakhs and 6 million Uyghurs in 1982 which was an increase from 500,000 Kazakhs and 4 million Uyghurs in the 1960s there had been a declining death rate for child birth and diseases have been checked by advanced medical care helping Xinjiang's population growth and China does not strictly apply birth control to. Protected by the Taklamakan Desert from steppe nomads elements Tocharian culture survived until the 7th century when the arrival Turkic immigrants from the collapsing Uyghur Khaganate modern-day Mongolia began to absorb the Tocharians to form the modern-day Uyghur ethnic group.[47] Family relatives who object to interracial s their relatives ten lead to lasting difficulties with relatives pressuing the not to take place or forcing the couple to be estranged from the family.[423] Many interracial couples face the prospect being disowned by their parents and cut f if they intermarried while some couples in the face opposition chose to run f with their partners.[424] Uyghur parents have cut f or told to stay away from Xinjiang their children who married Han after going to "China proper" to pursue their education some interracial couples had secret s to hide from their relatives and parents in Ghulja.[425] For many Chinese or Taiwanese love is not expressed with words and it is not simply a matter feeling Love is shown and displayed through material care Chinese parents and children are not so much interested in sharing their emotions through for example hugs or words Filial piety and parental care are shown by ‘feeding’ someone ‘providing’ for someone or performing ritualistic acts This rule applies to many kinds familial relationships If a husband is poor he cannot show his love because he lacks the material prerequisites to. Turkish connections were used by Uyghur fighters to go into Syria and the humanitarian Uyghur Eastern Turkistan Education and Solidarity Association (ETESA) which is located in Turkey sent Uyghurs into Syria endorsed the killing the pro-China Imam Juma Tayir applauded attacks in China and posted on its website content from. Al Qaeda appointed TIP (ETIM) member Abdul Haq al Turkistani to their Shura Majlis.[467] Al Qaeda also appointed TIP (ETIM) member Abdul Shakoor Turkistani as military commander their forces in the FATA region Pakistan.[468] TIP (ETIM) issued a eulogy for Doku Umarov the Caucasian Emirate upon.